Did you know after the war, surviving Pequots were placed under Niantic, Mohegan & Narragansett; & banished from their homeland?

The final act of the Pequot War was on September 21, 1638, when Miantinomi (Narragansett Sachem), Uncas (or Poquiam, Mohegan Sachem), John Haynes, Roger Ludlow and Edward Hopkins signed a tripartite treaty.

Known as the Treaty of Hartford, this articles of agreement specified:

  1. Forbade any followers of Sassacus (Pequot Sachem) to be called Pequots.
  2. Denied Pequots rights to live on the tribe’s former lands. These lands were “right of conquest” and belonged to the victors of war. (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Mohegans, Niantics, Narragansetts and Pequots would soon dispute over these lands for years to come!)
  3. Pequot men who survived were assigned with their families to be under the Uncas and Miantinomi.
  4. Both sachems, Uncas and Miantinomi, agreed to pay tribute to the colonies for Pequot captives. (Tributes were to be paid in wampum, and different amounts were assigned to men, women and children.)
  5. In the future, neither the Narragansetts or the Mohegans would take up arms against any entity without consulting the English first.

To read more about the Treaty of Hartford, check out Alden T. Vaughan’s book  New England Frontier: Puritans and Indians, 1620-1675. The treaty is published in Vaughn’s Appendix, and is also published in Collections of the Rhode Island Historical Society, Volume III. Or, read the full transcription of the Treaty of Hartford below.

Articles of Agreement between the English in Connecticutt and the Indian Sachems

A Covenant and Agreement made between the English inhabiting the Jurisdiction of the River of Connecticut of thee one part and Miantimony the Chief Sachem of the Narragansets in the behalf of himself and the other Chief Sachems there and Poquin or Uncas the Chief Sachem of the Indians called the Mohegans in the behalf of himself and the Sachems under him as followeth at Hartford ye 21st of September 1638

Imper: There is a peace and familiarity made between the said Miantinomie and the Narragansett Indians and the said Poquin and Mohegans Indians and all former Injuries and wrongs offered each to other remitted and buried and never to be renewed any more from henceforth.

It is Agreed if there fall out injuries and wrongs for future to be done or Committed each to other or their Men they shall not presently revenge it but they are to Appeal to the English and they are to Decide the same And the Determination of the English to stand and they are each to do as is by the English to set down and if the one of the other refuse to do it shall be lawful for the English to compel them and to side and take part if they see cause against the obstinate or refusing party.

It is Agreed and a conclusion of peace and friendship made between the said Miantinome and the said Narragansetts and the said Poquin and said Mohegans as long as they carry themselves Orderly and give no Just cause of offence and that they nor either of them do Shelter any that may be Enemies to the English that shall or formerly have had hand in Murdering or killing any English Man or Woman or consenting thereunto they or either of them shall as Soon as they can either bring the Chief Sachem of our late Enemies the Pequots that had the chief hand in killing the English to the said English or take off their heads As also for those Murderers that are not agreed upon amongst Us that are living they shall as soon as they can possible take off their heads if they be in their Custody or else whensoever they or any of them

Shall come amongst thems or to their Wigwams or any where if they can by any means come by them And whereas there be or is Reported for to be said Narragansetts and Mohegans 200 Pequots living that are Men besides Squaws and Paposes The English do give unto Miantinome and the Narragansetts to make up the Number of Eighty with the Eleaven they have already and to Poquin his Number and that after they the Pequots shall be divided as aforesaid shall no more be called Pequots but Narragansetts and Mohegans and as their Men or either of them are to Pay for every Sannop One fathom of Wampampeag and for every Youth half so much and for every Sannop Papose one hand to bee paid at hilling time of Corn at Connecticutt Yearly and shall not Suffer them for to live in the Country that was formerly theirs but now is the English by Conquest neither shall the Narragansets nor Mohegans possess any part of the Pequot Country without leave from the English

And it is always expected that the English Captives are forthwith to be delivered to the English not as belong to Connecticutt to the Sachems there and such as belong to the Massachusets The said Agreements are to be kept inviolable by the Parties aboveSaid and if any make breach of them the other Two may Joyn and make Warr upon such as shall break the same unless Satisfaction be made being reasonable required

Haynes Governour                     John Haynes
The mark of Miantinomy        Roger Ludlow
The mark of Poquiam              Edward Hopkins
alias Uncas

The above written is a Copy of some Articles made with
the English and Indians as Attest Compared by
Samuel Mason Assistant
John Tracy Justice of Peace

A True Copy as on file
Attest Ja Meinzies Cler: Cur: Comis.sers

A true Copy from the Minutes of his Majesty’s Court of Commissioners holden at Norwich &c June 28th. 1743 in the Secretary’s Office of the Colony of Connecticut
Test George Wyllys Secretary